Maryland's Defense Patent Database

The defense community in Maryland is an R&D powerhouse. Use this database to see the innovative patents that are poised for commercialization.

Data is provided by DoD Naval labs in Southern Maryland. Database funding supported by the DoD Office of Economic Adjustment through a Defense Industry Adjustment grant program.

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High average current, high quality pulsed electron injector

Patent Number: 8,564,224

AbstractAn electron injector including an electron source and a conducting grid situated close to the electron source, one or more RF accelerating/bunching cavities operating at the same fundamental RF frequency; a DC voltage source configured to bias the cathode at a small positive voltage with respect to the grid; a first RF drive configured to apply an RF signal between the cathode and grid at the fundamental and third harmonic RF frequencies; and a second RF drive configured to apply an RF drive signal to the accelerating/bunching cavities. Electrons are emitted by the cathode and travel through the grid to the accelerating/bunching cavities for input into an RF linac. The first RF drive applies a first RF drive signal at the fundamental frequency of the linac plus higher harmonics thereof to the gap between the cathode and the grid to cause the emitted electrons to form electron bunches and the second RF drive applies a second RF drive signal to the accelerating/bunching cavities on the other side of the grid to further accelerate and optimize the size of the electron bunches. Because the applied RF signals contain at the fundamental linac frequency, the electrons are bunched at that frequency and each RF bucket of the linac is filled with an electron bunch.
Patent Number8,564,224 Issue Date2013-10-22 Link USPTO website

Primary Category

Biographical Information


  • Phillip A. Sprangle,
  • Steven H. Gold,
  • Antonio C. Ting,
  • Joseph R. Penano,
  • Daniel F. Gordon,
  • Bahman Hafizi,


  • The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy

Executive Summary

This patent was granted in 2 years, 159 days, which is an average speed.

It has 18 claims, which is far fewer than average for this category.

Its proximity to basic research is much less than others in this category, and it displays a much slower than average technology cycle time.

This patent received far fewer citations from other patents, and references far fewer other patents, as compared to other patents in this category.

Grant Time

2 years, 159 days



Patent Grant Time

This patent had an average grant time compared to others in this category.

Patent grant time can be influenced by many factors. Activities within the USPTO that are beyond the control of patent attornies can influence grant time, but short grant times can also indicate well-written patents and dedicated efforts to respond rapidly to USPTO office actions with strong arguments. Shorter grant times are preferable, and the scores for this section are inverse measures — higher scores are better.

Patent Claims

This patent has far fewer claims compared to others in this category.

The number of claims in a patent is correlated with its strength. Because greater claim counts increase the cost of a patent, more claims can indicate the importance an applicant assigns to a patent. Importantly, some may elect to file claims across multiple patents. A higher score in this metric indicates more claims, relative to others in this category.

Citations From Other Patents

This patent has received far fewer citations from other patents, than others in this category.

Citations from other patents are an important measure of the significance of a patent. More citations indicate that other technologies build on a patent. Higher scores in this metric are better, and indicate more citations from other patents.

Citations to Other Patents

This patent referenced many more citations to other patents, than others in this category.

A lower number of citations to other patents can be a sign of diminished patent strength. More citations indicate dependence on more other technologies. Higher scores in this category are better, and indicate fewer citations to other patents.

Research and Innovation Indicators
These are percentile ranks — they indicate the percentage of peers with lower scores.

Proximity to Basic Research



This patent has much less proximity to basic research compared to others in this category.

Proximity to basic research is measured by comparing the number of citations to non-patent literature among a cohort of patents. Because most non-patent citations are primary research papers, a higher count indicates greater proximity to basic research.